chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain Class Reference


Deformable terrain model.

This class implements a deformable terrain based on the Soil Contact Model. Unlike RigidTerrain, the vertical coordinates of this terrain mesh can be deformed due to interaction with ground vehicles or other collision shapes.

#include <SCMDeformableTerrain.h>

Inheritance diagram for chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain:
Collaboration diagram for chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain:


class  SoilParametersCallback
 Class to be used as a callback interface for location-dependent soil parameters. More...

Public Types

enum  DataPlotType {

Public Member Functions

 SCMDeformableTerrain (ChSystem *system)
 Construct a default SCMDeformableSoil. More...
void SetPlane (ChCoordsys<> mplane)
 Set the plane reference. More...
void SetSoilParameters (double Bekker_Kphi, double Bekker_Kc, double Bekker_n, double Mohr_cohesion, double Mohr_friction, double Janosi_shear, double elastic_K, double damping_R)
 Set the properties of the SCM soil model. More...
void SetBulldozingFlow (bool mb)
 Enable/disable the creation of soil inflation at the side of the ruts (bulldozing effects).
bool GetBulldozingFlow () const
void SetBulldozingParameters (double mbulldozing_erosion_angle, double mbulldozing_flow_factor=1.0, int mbulldozing_erosion_n_iterations=3, int mbulldozing_erosion_n_propagations=10)
 Set parameters controlling the creation of side ruts (bulldozing effects). More...
void SetAutomaticRefinement (bool mr)
 Enable/disable dynamic mesh refinement. More...
bool GetAutomaticRefinement () const
void SetAutomaticRefinementResolution (double mr)
 Set the resolution for automatic mesh refinement (specified in meters). More...
double GetAutomaticRefinementResolution () const
void SetTestHighOffset (double moff)
 Set the vertical level up to which collision is tested (relative to the reference level at the sample point). More...
double GetTestHighOffset () const
void SetPlotType (DataPlotType mplot, double mmin, double mmax)
 Set the color plot type for the soil mesh. More...
void SetColor (ChColor color)
 Set visualization color. More...
void SetTexture (const std::string tex_file, float tex_scale_x=1, float tex_scale_y=1)
 Set texture properties. More...
void EnableMovingPatch (std::shared_ptr< ChBody > body, const ChVector<> &point_on_body, double dimX, double dimY)
 Enable moving patch an set parameters (default: disabled). More...
void RegisterSoilParametersCallback (SoilParametersCallback *cb)
 Specify the callback object to set the soil parameters at given (x,y) locations. More...
virtual double GetHeight (double x, double y) const override
 Get the terrain height at the specified (x,y) location.
virtual chrono::ChVector GetNormal (double x, double y) const override
 Get the terrain normal at the specified (x,y) location.
virtual float GetCoefficientFriction (double x, double y) const override
 Get the coefficient of friction at the specified (x,y) location. More...
const ChCoordsysGetPlane () const
 Get the current reference plane. The SCM terrain patch is in the (x,y) plane with normal along the Z axis.
const std::shared_ptr< ChTriangleMeshShapeGetMesh () const
 Get the underlyinh triangular mesh.
void Initialize (double height, double sizeX, double sizeY, int divX, int divY)
 Initialize the terrain system (flat). More...
void Initialize (const std::string &mesh_file)
 Initialize the terrain system (mesh). More...
void Initialize (const std::string &heightmap_file, const std::string &mesh_name, double sizeX, double sizeY, double hMin, double hMax)
 Initialize the terrain system (height map). More...
TerrainForce GetContactForce (std::shared_ptr< ChBody > body) const
 Return the current cumulative contact force on the specified body (due to interaction with the SCM terrain).
void PrintStepStatistics (std::ostream &os) const
 Print timing and counter information for last step.
- Public Member Functions inherited from chrono::vehicle::ChTerrain
virtual void Synchronize (double time)
 Update the state of the terrain system at the specified time.
virtual void Advance (double step)
 Advance the state of the terrain system by the specified duration.
void RegisterFrictionFunctor (FrictionFunctor *functor)
 Specify the functor object to provide the coefficient of friction at given (x,y) locations.

Additional Inherited Members

- Protected Attributes inherited from chrono::vehicle::ChTerrain
 functor for location-dependent coefficient of friction

Constructor & Destructor Documentation

◆ SCMDeformableTerrain()

chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::SCMDeformableTerrain ( ChSystem system)

Construct a default SCMDeformableSoil.

The user is responsible for calling various Set methods before Initialize.

[in]systempointer to the containing multibody system

Member Function Documentation

◆ EnableMovingPatch()

void chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::EnableMovingPatch ( std::shared_ptr< ChBody body,
const ChVector<> &  point_on_body,
double  dimX,
double  dimY 

Enable moving patch an set parameters (default: disabled).

If enabled, ray-casting is performed only for the SCM vertices that are within the specified range (dimX, dimY) of the given point on the specified reference body.

[in]bodymonitored body
[in]point_on_bodypatch center, relative to body
[in]dimXpatch X dimension
[in]dimYpatch Y dimension

◆ GetCoefficientFriction()

float chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::GetCoefficientFriction ( double  x,
double  y 
) const

Get the coefficient of friction at the specified (x,y) location.

This coefficient of friction value may be used by certain tire models to modify the tire characteristics, but it will have no effect on the interaction of the terrain with other objects (including tire models that do not explicitly use it). For SCMDeformableTerrain, this function defers to the user-provided functor object of type ChTerrain::FrictionFunctor, if one was specified. Otherwise, it returns the constant value of 0.8.

Implements chrono::vehicle::ChTerrain.

◆ Initialize() [1/3]

void chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::Initialize ( const std::string &  heightmap_file,
const std::string &  mesh_name,
double  sizeX,
double  sizeY,
double  hMin,
double  hMax 

Initialize the terrain system (height map).

The initial undeformed mesh is provided via the specified BMP file as a height map

[in]heightmap_filefilename for the height map (BMP)
[in]mesh_namename of the mesh asset
[in]sizeXterrain dimension in the X direction
[in]sizeYterrain dimension in the Y direction
[in]hMinminimum height (black level)
[in]hMaxmaximum height (white level)

◆ Initialize() [2/3]

void chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::Initialize ( const std::string &  mesh_file)

Initialize the terrain system (mesh).

The initial undeformed mesh is provided via a Wavefront .obj file.

[in]mesh_filefilename of the input mesh (.OBJ file in Wavefront format)

◆ Initialize() [3/3]

void chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::Initialize ( double  height,
double  sizeX,
double  sizeY,
int  divX,
int  divY 

Initialize the terrain system (flat).

This version creates a flat array of points.

[in]heightterrain height
[in]sizeXterrain dimension in the X direction
[in]sizeYterrain dimension in the Y direction
[in]divXnumber of divisions in the X direction
[in]divYnumber of divisions in the Y direction

◆ RegisterSoilParametersCallback()

void chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::RegisterSoilParametersCallback ( SoilParametersCallback cb)

Specify the callback object to set the soil parameters at given (x,y) locations.

To use constant soil parameters throughout the entire patch, use SetSoilParameters.

◆ SetAutomaticRefinement()

void chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::SetAutomaticRefinement ( bool  mr)

Enable/disable dynamic mesh refinement.

If enabled, additional points are added under contact patches, up to the desired resolution.

◆ SetAutomaticRefinementResolution()

void chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::SetAutomaticRefinementResolution ( double  mr)

Set the resolution for automatic mesh refinement (specified in meters).

The mesh is refined, as needed, until the largest side of a triangle reaches trhe specified resolution. Triangles out of contact patches are not refined.

◆ SetBulldozingParameters()

void chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::SetBulldozingParameters ( double  mbulldozing_erosion_angle,
double  mbulldozing_flow_factor = 1.0,
int  mbulldozing_erosion_n_iterations = 3,
int  mbulldozing_erosion_n_propagations = 10 

Set parameters controlling the creation of side ruts (bulldozing effects).

mbulldozing_erosion_angleangle of erosion of the displaced material (in degrees!)
mbulldozing_flow_factorgrowth of lateral volume respect to pressed volume
mbulldozing_erosion_n_iterationsnumber of erosion refinements per timestep
mbulldozing_erosion_n_propagationsnumber of concentric vertex selections subject to erosion

◆ SetColor()

void chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::SetColor ( ChColor  color)

Set visualization color.

[in]colorcolor of the visualization material

◆ SetPlane()

void chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::SetPlane ( ChCoordsys<>  mplane)

Set the plane reference.

By default, the reference plane is horizontal with Z up (ISO vehicle reference frame). To set as Y up, call SetPlane(ChCoordys(VNULL, Q_from_AngX(-CH_C_PI_2)));

◆ SetPlotType()

void chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::SetPlotType ( DataPlotType  mplot,
double  mmin,
double  mmax 

Set the color plot type for the soil mesh.

When a scalar plot is used, also define the range in the pseudo-color colormap.

◆ SetSoilParameters()

void chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::SetSoilParameters ( double  Bekker_Kphi,
double  Bekker_Kc,
double  Bekker_n,
double  Mohr_cohesion,
double  Mohr_friction,
double  Janosi_shear,
double  elastic_K,
double  damping_R 

Set the properties of the SCM soil model.

These parameters are described in: "Parameter Identification of a Planetary Rover Wheel-Soil Contact Model via a Bayesian Approach", A.Gallina, R. Krenn et al. Note that the original SCM model does not include the K and R coefficients. A very large value of K and R=0 reproduce the original SCM.

Bekker_KphiKphi, frictional modulus in Bekker model
Bekker_KcKc, cohesive modulus in Bekker model
Bekker_nn, exponent of sinkage in Bekker model (usually 0.6...1.8)
Mohr_cohesionCohesion in, Pa, for shear failure
Mohr_frictionFriction angle (in degrees!), for shear failure
Janosi_shearJ , shear parameter, in meters, in Janosi-Hanamoto formula (usually few mm or cm)
elastic_Kelastic stiffness K, per unit area, [Pa/m] (must be larger than Kphi)
damping_Rvertical damping R, per unit area [Pa s/m] (proportional to vertical speed)

◆ SetTestHighOffset()

void chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::SetTestHighOffset ( double  moff)

Set the vertical level up to which collision is tested (relative to the reference level at the sample point).

Since the contact is unilateral, this could be zero. However, when computing bulldozing flow, one might also need to know if in the surrounding there is some potential future contact: so it might be better to use a positive value (but not higher than the max. expected height of the bulldozed rubble, to avoid slowdown of collision tests).

◆ SetTexture()

void chrono::vehicle::SCMDeformableTerrain::SetTexture ( const std::string  tex_file,
float  tex_scale_x = 1,
float  tex_scale_y = 1 

Set texture properties.

[in]tex_filetexture filename
[in]tex_scale_xtexture scale in X
[in]tex_scale_ytexture scale in Y

The documentation for this class was generated from the following files:
  • /builds/uwsbel/chrono/src/chrono_vehicle/terrain/SCMDeformableTerrain.h
  • /builds/uwsbel/chrono/src/chrono_vehicle/terrain/SCMDeformableTerrain.cpp